NIGMS-Supported Nobelists

Fact Sheet: NIGMS-Supported Nobelists

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Name
YearFieldCitation
Jennifer A. Doudna2020Chemistry For the development of a method for genome editing​
Frances H. Arnold & George P. Smith2018ChemistryFor the directed evolution of enzymes and for the phage display of peptides and antibodies
Joachim Frank2017Chemistry For developing cryo-electron microscopy for the high-resolution structure determination of biomolecules in solution
Jeffrey C. Hall, Michael Rosbash, & Michael W. Young2017Physiology or MedicineFor their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm
Paul Modrich & Aziz Sancar2015Chemistry For mechanistic studies of DNA repair
William E. Moerner2014Chemistry For the development of super-resolved fluorescence microscopy
Martin Karplus, Michael Levitt & Arieh Warshel2013ChemistryFor the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems
James E. Rothman & Randy W. Schekman2013Physiology
or
Medicine
For their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells
Brian K. Kobilka2012ChemistryFor studies of G-protein-coupled receptors
Ei-ichi Negishi2010ChemistryFor palladium-catalyzed cross couplings in organic synthesis
Venkatraman Ramakrishnan, Thomas A. Steitz & Ada E. Yonath2009ChemistryFor studies of the structure and function of the ribosome
Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Carol W. Greider & Jack W. Szostak2009Physiology
or
Medicine
For the discovery of how chromosomes are protected by telomeres and the enzyme telomerase
Osamu Shimomura, Martin Chalfie & Roger Y. Tsien2008ChemistryFor the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP
Mario R. Capecchi & Oliver Smithies2007Physiology
or
Medicine
For the discovery of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells
Roger D. Kornberg2006ChemistryFor his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription
Andrew Z. Fire & Craig C. Mello2006Physiology
or
Medicine
For the discovery of RNA interference—gene silencing by double-stranded RNA
Robert H. Grubbs & Richard R. Schrock2005ChemistryFor the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis [a chemical reaction for making carbon-carbon bonds]
Avram Hershko & Irwin Rose2004ChemistryFor the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation
Paul C. Lauterbur2003Physiology
or
Medicine
For discoveries concerning magnetic resonance imaging
Roderick MacKinnon2003ChemistryFor discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes [specifically, for structural and mechanistic studies of ion channels]
H. Robert Horvitz2002Physiology
or
Medicine
For discoveries concerning genetic regulation of organ development and programmed cell death
John B. Fenn2002ChemistryFor the development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules [specifically, for techniquesin mass spectrometry]
Leland H. Hartwell2001Physiology
or
Medicine
For discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle
K. Barry Sharpless2001ChemistryFor work on chirally catalyzed oxidation reactions [a technique to selectively control the outcome of chemical reactions]
Eric R. Kandel2000Physiology
or
Medicine
For discoveries concerning signal transduction in the nervous system
Günter Blobel1999Physiology
or
Medicine
For the discovery that proteins have intrinsic signals that govern their transport and localization in the cell
John A. Pople1998ChemistryFor development of computational methods in quantum chemistry
Paul D. Boyer1997ChemistryFor elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
Stanley B. Prusiner1997Physiology
or
Medicine
For discovery of prions—a new biological principle of infection
Edward B. Lewis1995Physiology
or
Medicine
For discoveries concerning the genetic control of early embryonic development
George A. Olah1994ChemistryFor contributions to carbocation chemistry
Alfred G. Gilman1994Physiology
or
Medicine
For discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells
Kary B. Mullis1993ChemistryFor contributions to the developments of methods within DNA- based chemistry [specifically, for his invention of the polymerasechain reaction (PCR) method]
Michael Smith1993ChemistryFor contributions to the development of methods within DNA-based chemistry [specifically, for his fundamental contributions to the establishment of oligonucleotide-based, site-directed mutagenesis and its development for protein studies]
Richard J. Roberts & Phillip A. Sharp1993Physiology
or
Medicine
For discoveries of split-genes
Edmond H. Fischer & Edwin G. Krebs1992Physiology
or
Medicine
For discoveries concerning reversible protein phosphorylation as a biological regulatory mechanism
Elias J. Corey1990ChemistryFor development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis
Sidney Altman & Thomas R. Cech1989ChemistryFor discovery of catalytic properties of RNA
Donald J. Cram1987 ChemistryFor development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity
Stanley Cohen1986Physiology
or
Medicine
For discoveries of growth factors
Herbert A. Hauptman1985ChemistryFor outstanding achievements in the development of direct methods for the determination of crystal structures
Michael S. Brown & Joseph L. Goldstein1985Physiology
or
Medicine
For discoveries concerning the regulation of cholesterol metabolism
Henry Taube1983ChemistryFor work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions, especially in metal complexes
John R. Vane1982Physiology
or
Medicine
For discoveries concerning prostaglandins and related biologically active substances
Roald Hoffmann1981ChemistryFor theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions
David H. Hubel1981Physiology
or
Medicine
For discoveries concerning information processing in the visual system
Paul Berg1980ChemistryFor fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA
Walter Gilbert1980ChemistryFor contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids
Herbert C. Brown 1979ChemistryFor development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis
Daniel Nathans & Hamilton O. Smith1978Physiology
or
Medicine
For the discovery of restriction enzymes and their application to problems of molecular genetics
Andrew V. Schally1977Physiology
or
Medicine
For discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain
William N. Lipscomb1976ChemistryFor studies on the structure of boranes illuminating problems of chemical bonding
Christian de Duve & George E. Palade1974Physiology
or
Medicine
For discoveries concerning the structural and functional organization of the cell
Stanford Moore & William H. Stein1972ChemistryFor contributions to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active center of the ribonuclease molecule
Earl W. Sutherland, Jr.1971Physiology
or
Medicine
For discoveries concerning the mechanisms of the action of hormones
Luis F. Leloir1970ChemistryFor discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates
Max Delbrück, Alfred D. Hershey & Salvador E. Luria1969Physiology
or
Medicine
For discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of viruses
Lars Onsager1968ChemistryFor the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name, which are fundamental for the thermodynamics of irreversible processes
Robert W. Holley & H. Gobind Khorana1968Physiology
or
Medicine
For interpretation of the genetic code and its function in protein synthesis
Charles B. Huggins1966Physiology
or
Medicine
For discoveries concerning hormonal treatment of prostatic cancer
Robert B. Woodward1965ChemistryFor outstanding achievements in the art of organic synthesis
Konrad Bloch1964Physiology
or
Medicine
For discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of thecholesterol and fatty acid metabolism
James D. Watson1962Physiology
or
Medicine
For discoveries concerning the molecular structure of nucleic acids and its significance for information transfer in living material